In the article the author looks into the challenges one faces when trying to explore the notion of regional identity. Firstly, it is a problem of terminology, problem of defining the region and dominants of its development as well as challenges in understanding how regional identity is formed depending on these dominants and region defining. Also problem of natural and artificial ways of regional identity forming is discussed based in historical experience of Russia. The topic of regional identity is considered to be of great interest for discipline of regional studies.